The Pandyan dynasty (பாண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil dynasty. The Pandyas were one of the four Tamil dynasties (the other three being Chola, Chera and Pallava), which ruled South India until the 15th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai, a seaport on the Southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Pandyan was well known since the ancient period, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire; during the 13th century AD, Marco Polo mentioned it as the richest empire in existence. The Pandyan empire was home to temples including Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai, and Nellaiappar Temple built on the bank of the riverThamirabarani in Tirunelveli.The Pandyas of Southern India are believed to have been founded at least five to six centuries before the Christian Era with a very strong possibility of a more ancient date of establishment. Their recorded existence and mention are found in records dating to as early as 550 BCE. Emperor Augustus of Rome at Antioch knew of the Pandyan of Dramira and received a Pandyan ambassador with letters and gifts from this ancient Tamil Kingdom. Strabo described an ambassador to emperor Augustus Caesar from a South Indian King called Pandyan. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was described as Pandyan Mediterranea by Periplus and Modura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy....
|The early Pandyan Dynasty of the Sangam Literature faded into obscurity upon the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century.
The Later Pandyas (1150–1350) entered their golden age under Maravman Sundara Pandiyan and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. 1251), who expanded the empire into Telugu country, conquered Kalinga (Orissa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. During their history, the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate in the 16th century.
The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature before the Christian Era. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world. Tradition holds that the legendary Sangams were held in Madurai under their patronage, and that some of the Pandya Kings were poets themselves.
Pandyas of pre sangam period
Vadimpalamba Nindra pandyan and Makeerthi are his nice names.The literature Purananuru indicates that he digged the river “Paghruli” on kumari district. The great ancient literature Tolkappiyam (mirror of Tamilan’s culture) were published in his court.
His actual name was Kudumi.His character and achievements can be found in the Literature Purananuru.
Pandyas of sangam period
Their period were from 300 B.C upto 200 A.D ,guessed by the Archeologist. Pattupattu,Ettuthogai(Literature) belongs to this period.
Kapatapuram was a terrain between the river Kumari and Tamaraprni,a capital place of Mudattiru Maran Along with poets and others he moved towards the west when the terrain with kapatapuram was devoured by the sea. Then they camped at Manalur and then Marched to Madurai. His history and poems are found in Narrinai, a literature of Sangam period.
Porkarai Pandyan a law abiding king,KadalulMaynda Ilamperum Valudi,Pandiyan Arivudai Nambi Olaiyur tanda Pudapandiyan, the victor of Olaiyur.Ariyapadai kadanta Nedunjelian put Kovalan (a businessman from the city Poompuhar,husband of Kannaki,both came to madurai to live ) to death and fell down dead when he realised his fault,the queen also left her mortal coil. He seemed to have the victory over the Aryans.
In the third century of A.D Kalaphras put their kindom in the Pandya country. They ruled Madurai from A.D 250 upto A.D 575. Their background history are yet to be known. Again Pandyas picked up their kingdom in the 6th centuries.
Maravarman Avanisulamani(A.D 600-625),Chezhian Vendan (A.D 625-640) in his period Chinese Tourist “Yuan Swang” had visited the place Kanchi. Maravarman Arikesari in his period “Yuan swang” visited the Pandya country and had written the natural resources and speciality of Pearls in his notes, Kocahdayan Ranadiran, Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (A.D 710-765), Nedunchezhian Parantagan(A.D. 765-790),stone scripts and evidences are availoable from his period and Severa mangalam notes in Lodon Museum also point out the evidences, Semaran Sevalappan(A.D 835- 862), VaraGunavarman, Parantaga Pandyan. They were all belongs to this Medival period.
Later Pandyas (A.D. 1190-1310)
During this period Pandyas had extended their kingdom Nellore(Andhra), Kadappa district.
First Sadayavarman KulasekaraPandyan (A.D 1190-1238)
He was the son of Vikrama Pandyan and his history are found in the stone script of Madurai, Tirenelveli, Ramanathapuram district. In the war between Third Kulothunga chola and him,he was defeated at Maptiyur at Tirupattur. The stone script evidence says that chola has returned his kingdom to this king. The king was prouded by the name Raja Kambeera chaturvedi Mangalam.
First Maravarman Sundarapandyan(A.D 1216-1238)
He relieved the war between the kings of south Kongu and North Kongu and made a friendship with them. He defeated the chola kings several times and returned their kingdom to chola itself. In A.D 1232, he was defeated by Posala king Veera Narashimman.
Second Sadayavarman Kulasekara Pandyan, Second Maravarman SundaraPandyan, First Sadayavarman Sundarapandyan, sadayavarman Veerapandyan, Sadayavarman Vikramapandyan, First Maravarman Kulasekarapandyan, Sadayavarman sundarapandyan, Maravarman Vikramapandyan, Maravarman Veerapandyan were belong to this period.